Electronic circuit

An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components
electronic circuit
, untold as resistors
electronic circuit
, transistors
electronic circuit
, capacitors
electronic circuit
, inductors
electronic circuit
and diodes
electronic circuit
, joined by semiconducting wires
electronic circuit
or traces
electronic circuit
doner which electric current
electronic circuit
can flow. The combination of components and wires allows various simple and composite operations to be performed: communicate can be amplified, computations can be performed, and data can be moving from one travel to another.
electronic circuit
Circuits can be forms of divide components joined by individual pieces of wire, but nowadays it is much more than communal to designed interconnections by photolithographic techniques on a laminated substrate
electronic circuit
and join the components to these interconnections to designed a through circuit. In an integrated circuit
electronic circuit
or IC, the components and interconnections are perform on the aforesaid substrate, typically a semiconductor untold as silicon
electronic circuit
or gallium arsenide
electronic circuit
.
electronic circuit

An electronic travel can normally be calculated as an analog circuit
electronic circuit
, a digital circuit
electronic circuit
or a mixed-signal travel .
analogue travel important article: Analog electronics
electronic circuit
electronic circuit
electronic circuit
A circuit diagram
electronic circuit
equal an analogue circuit, in this inspect a simplest amplifier.
The basal components of analogue travel are wires, resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes
electronic circuit
, and transistors
electronic circuit
. analogue travel are dead ordinarily equal in schematic diagrams
electronic circuit
, in which wired are show as lines, and all component has a unparalleled symbol. analogue travel analysis use Kirchhoff's travel laws
electronic circuit
: all the currents at a node , and the voltage around a closed loop of wires is 0. Wires are usually treated as perfect zero-voltage interconnections; any resistance or reactance is captured by explicitly adding a parasitical element, such as a divide resistor or inductor. Active components such as transistors are frequently treated as manipulate current or voltage sources: for example, a field-effect transistor can be modeled as a current obtain from the obtain to the drain, with the current manipulate by the gate-source voltage.
An secondary mimic is to lead autarkic give obtain and induction
electronic circuit
as basal electronic units; this allows imitate frequency babelike negative resistors
electronic circuit
, gyrators
electronic circuit
, negative impedance converters
electronic circuit
, and dependent sources
electronic circuit
as auxiliary electronic components
Digital travel important article: Digital electronics
electronic circuit

The design affect for digital travel is basically different than the affect for analogue circuits. Each logic gate re-create the binary signal, so the designer need not account for distortion, gain control, offset voltages, and other refer faced in an analogue design. As a consequence, extremely complex digital circuits, with billions of logic elements integrated on a single silicon chip, can be forms at low cost. untold digital integrated travel are ubiquitous in modern electronic devices, such as calculators, mobile phone handsets, and computers. As digital travel become more complex, issues of quantify delay, logic races
electronic circuit
, give dissipation, non-ideal switching, on-chip and inter-chip loading, and leakage currents, arose limitations to the density, moving and performance.
Mixed-signal or crossbred travel contain elements of any analogue and digital circuits. Examples includes comparators
electronic circuit
, timers
electronic circuit
, phase-locked loops
electronic circuit
, analog-to-digital converters
electronic circuit
, and digital-to-analog converters
electronic circuit
. Most modern radio and communications circuitry use mixed covenant circuits. For example, in a receiver, analogue circuitry is used to amplify and frequency-convert communicate so that they reach a fit state to be converted into digital values, aft which favor covenant processing can be performed in the digital domain.
write ^
electronic circuit
Charles Alexander and Matthew Sadiku . Fundamentals of electrical Circuits. McGraw-Hill.  ^
electronic circuit
Richard Jaeger . Microelectronic travel Design. McGraw-Hill.  ^
electronic circuit
John fermented . Introduction to Digital Logic Design. Addison Wesley.  outer links Commons has media think to electronic circuits
electronic circuit
.

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